English

Discrimination 2000

Mistet jobben pga SM-orientering (publisert 15. juni 2003)

En 26 år gammel kvinne mistet i desember 2000 vikarjobben sin som selger i et forsikringsselskap på Østlandet på grunn av åpenhet omkring sin SM-orientering.

Av Svein Skeid

Hun hadde et vikariat med muligheter for fast ansettelse og gjennomgikk 6-7 ukers intern teoriopplæring og oppnådde beste resultat av hele kullet av nye vikarer.
Etter å ha blitt med i salgsteam, dro teamet på teambuilding-seminar. Under seminaret ble de ansatte blant annet oppfordret til å fortelle sine kolleger noe om seg selv som de andre ikke kjente til. Kvinnen lurte litt på å fortelle om sin SM-interesse, men følte at det ikke ble helt riktig, og valgte heller å bidra med noe annet. Senere samme kveld, etter at middagen var fortært og stemningen ble løsere, åpnet hun seg opp for 2-3 kolleger og fortalte litt om SM-interessen. Dette ble møtt med godt humør og tatt imot som noe “kult” av kollegene, og i de første par ukene tilbake på kontoret, ble det spøkt og fleipet litt med “kinky” vitser i pauser og slikt, spesielt mellom kvinnen og disse kollegene. Teamlederen hørte spøkene, men delte ikke humoren.

To uker senere fikk kvinnen sparken. Sjefen skyldte på økonomien og sa han hadde tatt inn for mange nye ansatte. Dette kom som en stor overraskelse på henne, med tanke på de gode resultatene på teoriopplæringen.

Hos konsulenten i vikarbyrået, fikk kvinnen etterpå et velmenende råd om at det er lurt å være litt mindre åpen om sitt privatliv på arbeidsplassen. Kvinnen forklarte konsulenten at hun trodde forsikringsselskapets økonomi var årsak til oppdragsavbruddet, hvorpå konsulenten ble litt perpleks et øyeblikk – akkurat nok til at kvinnen skjønte at økonomien slett ikke hadde noe å si.

To måneder etter dette, annonserte forsikringsselskapet på nytt etter nye vikarer til sine salgsteam – vikariater med muligheter for fast ansettelse.

Kvinnen valgte å ikke sloss for jobben sin, med tanke på at hun kun var vikar og derfor ikke hadde like store rettigheter som en fast ansatt ville hatt. I tillegg ville hun blitt stående som en bråkmaker, og kanskje miste muligheten til arbeid gjennom vikarbyrået i ettertid.

Det finner mange eksempler på at fetisjister og SM-ere mister jobben på grunn av sin SM-tilhørighet og orientering. Andre trues med oppsigelse dersom de fortsetter å informere offentlig om gruppens menneskerettigheter.

En undersøkelse blant leserne til “The Leather Journal” i 2001 kan tyde på at én av fire fetisjister opplever jobb-diskriminering.

En undersøkelse foretatt av SM-rettighetsorganisasjonen The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, NCSF, viser at én av 13 SM-ere hadde mistet jobben på grunn av sin legning.

 

English text

Dismissal of temporary worker

December 2000, a 26 year-old Norwegian heterosexual woman lost her temporary job as a salesperson in an insurance company in Eastern Norway because of her openness about her SM-orientation.

By Svein Skeid

This occurred despite the fact that she had completed internal training with the best results of the entire new intake of temporary staff. At a teambuilding seminar, participants were invited to tell their colleagues something about themselves that the others didn’t know about. The woman wondered whether to tell them about her interest in SM, but felt that this would not be quite right and therefore chose to contribute something else. Later the same evening, after dinner had been eaten and the atmosphere was more relaxed, she opened up to two or three of her colleagues and told them a bit about her interest in SM. This was met with good humour and taken as something “cool” by the colleagues, and in the first couple of weeks back at the office, this was joked about with “kinky” jokes in breaks, especially between the woman and these colleagues. The team leader heard the jokes, but did not share in the humour. Two weeks later, the woman was dismissed. The boss blamed this on the firm’s financial situation and said that he had taken on too many new employee s. However, the consultant in the deputy agency that had sent her to the firm in the first place afterwards gave her a friendly hint not to be so open about private matters in her next job. Two months later, the insurance company advertised again for new temporary staff for its sales team – temporary work with the possibility of permanent employment. The woman chose not to fight for her job, in the belief that she was only a temporary worker and therefore did not have the same rights as a permanent employee. Additionally, she would have been labeled as a troublemaker and would perhaps have missed out on the possibility of getting work through the temping agency in the future (Source: Personal documentation).

 

Abstract Firenze Abstrakt Firenze

Abstract Firenze Abstrakt Firenze

Kjær, R.: ”Stigma, Psychiatry and the sadomasochism-fetish population”
Foredrag på World Psychiatric Association International Thematic
Conference:
” Treatment in Psychiatry: an update”. Symposium SS20.2 Firenze
11.11.2004
WPA Section “Psychiatry and Human Sexuality

Stigma, Psychiatry and the Sadomasochism – Fetish Population

The prevailing attitudes and related myths in the western societies about this population are presented, and contemporary stigma theory is used to analyze the relationship between the mechanisms of stigmatization, stereotyping and discrimination and these attitudes. Members of this population experience harassment, loss of jobs and custody of their children and this is often legitimized by lay people referring to the categorization of these three sexual orientations as diseases in the ICD system.

The ICD-10 diagnoses F-65.0 (fetishism), 65.1 (fetishistic transvestism) and 65.5 (sadomasochism) give occasion for labeling as mentally ill a large population that does not fill the ordinary scientific criteria for psychiatric disorders. Possible psychiatric problems and disorders in this population that are presented to the clinician can better be described as in any other population by using the ordinary diagnoses that are not connected to specific sexual behavior.

In contrast to the fight against stigma related to schizophrenia, the sadomasochism – fetish population as a minority group faces stigmatization, to which our non-updated psychiatric profession is contributing.

The shortcomings of the present three diagnoses in the ICD-10 are discussed. The use of diagnoses based on myths and not science also gives the psychiatric profession a bad reputation. A revision is suggested to reduce this double-stigma.

R. Kjaer
M.D. Psychiatrist. Private practice

World Psychiatric Association – Symposium S08.5


World Psychiatric Association International Thematic Conference
“Diagnosis in Psychiatry: Integrating the Sciences”
Vienna, Austria June 19-22, 2003

Symposium SO8.5
Classification of Sexual Disorders
WPA Section “Psychiatry and Human Sexuality”
Friday, 20 June, 2003

I World Psychiatric Association diskuteres det ulogiske i kriteriene for tre ICD-10 diagnosene F65.0 Fetisjisme, F65.1 Fetisjistisk transvestittisme og F65.5 Sadomasochisme slik de nå er oppført, og man må forvente en betydelig endring av diagnosene ved neste revisjon av den internasjonale diagnosemanualen ICD-10, som utgis av Verdens Helseorganisasjon.

Spesialist i psykiatri, og faglig medlem av LLHs Diagnoseutvalg, Reidar Kjær, deltok 19.-22. juni 2003 på diagnosekongressen til World Psychiatric Association (WPA) i Wien i forbindelse med den forestående revisjon av diagnosemanualen ICD-10. Det er WPA som er den viktigste fagorganisasjon i revisjonsarbeidet med psykiatridelen av World Health Organization’s diagnoseliste som er offisiell liste i Norge.

Reidar Kjær deltok blant annet med foredraget:
”Do we need all the Paraphilias?” Det var plassert i symposiet Classification of Sexual Disorders (S08.5) og ble avholdt fredag 20.juni i kongressenteret i Hofburg i Wien.

Sammendrag (abstrakt) av Kjærs foredrag:

”Do we need all the Paraphilias?”
The ICD-10 diagnoses F-65.0 (fetishism), 65.1 (fetishistic transvestism) and 65.5 (sadomasochism) are no longer used in everyday Norwegian Psychiatry. But they still figure in the International and National ICD-10 manual. This paper addresses the pros et contras in the ongoing discussion about the revision of the diagnoses. A possible approach could be that national health authorities formally decided not to use these diagnoses, as was done in Denmark with 65.5 in 1995, and propose to delete them from the ICD list at the next revision. Parts of this discussion can be followed on the website www.revisef65.org

Abstraktene til denne konferansen ble trykket i et særnummer av bladet World Psychiatry som er Official Journal of The World Psychiatric Association.
WPA har mer enn 150.000 psykiatere som medlemmer fordelt på 106 medlemsland.

Dokumentasjon:
http://www.wpa2003vienna.at/home_E.htm

http://www.mednet.org.uy/spu/wp/WPA_Symposia.pdf

Bibliography 1 – ReviseF65


This bibliography is broken into two sections:

  1. Texts concerned with the F65 classification system
  2. Recommended general publications

This is an extract from Datenschlag’s BISAM bibliography. The complete version is available at www.datenschlag.org/english/bisam/. This version does not contain the abstracts, just the bibliographic notes.

Compiled by Kathrin Passig (picture left).
Please send corrections and additions tó [email protected].

This version: September, 2003

Bibliography 1 – ReviseF65
Texts concerned with the F65 classification system

[APA52] American Psychiatric Association (ed.). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1952.

[APA68] American Psychiatric Association (ed.). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Second Edition (DSM-II). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1968.

[APA80] American Psychiatric Association (ed.). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition (DSM-III). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1980.

[APA87] American Psychiatric Association (ed.). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Revised Edition (DSM-III-R). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1987.

[APA94] American Psychiatric Association (ed.). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1994.

[APA00] American Psychiatric Association (ed.). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 2000.

[Bay87] Ronald Bayer. Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1987.

[Bre89] Norman Breslow. Sources of Confusion in the Study and Treatment of Sadomasochism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4(3), (1989), pp. 263-274.

[BRW93] Bernd Brosig, Klaus Rodewig, Regina Woidera. Die Klassifikation von Sexualstörungen in der ICD-10: Ergebnisse der ICD-10-Forschungskriterienstudie. In: Wolfgang Schneider (ed.), Diagnostik und Klassifikation nach ICD-10, Kap. V: eine kritische Auseinandersetzung; Ergebnisse der ICD-10-Forschungskriterienstudie aus dem Bereich Psychosomatik/Psychotherapie, vol. 17 of Monographien zur Zeitschrift für psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1993. pp. 200-209.

[BB77a] Vern Bullough, Bonnie Bullough. Sin, Sickness, Sanity: A History of Sexual Attitudes. New American Library, New York, 1977.

[Bul76] Vern L. Bullough. Sexual Variance in Society and History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1976.

[Bul94] Vern L. Bullough. Science in the Bedroom: A History of Sex Research. Basic Books, New York, 1994. www2.hu-berlin.de% /sexology/GESUND/ARCHIV/LIBRO.HTM.

[BDD94] Vern L. Bullough, Dwight Dixon, Joan Dixon. Sadism, masochism and history, or when is behavior sado-masochistic? In: Roy Porter, Mikulás Teich (eds.), Sexual Knowledge, Sexual Science: The history of attitudes to sexuality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994. pp. 47-62.

[Cap91] Paula J. Caplan. How do they decide who is normal? The bizarre, but true, tale of the DSM process. Canadian Psychology, 32(2), (1991), pp. 162-170.

[FS99] L. Fischer, G. Smith. Statistical Adequacy of the Abel Assessment for Interest in Paraphilias. Sexual Abuse, 11(3), (1999), pp. 195-206.

[Gay97] J.J. Gayford. Disorders of sexual preference, or paraphilias: a review of the literature. Medicine, Science, and the Law, 37(4), (1997), pp. 303-315.

[Ger92] Bernard Gert. A sex caused inconsistency in DSM-III-R: the definition of mental disorder and the definition of paraphilias. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 17(2), (1992), pp. 155-171.

[HS02] Russell B. Hilliard, Robert L. Spitzer. Change in criterion for paraphilias in DSM-IV-TR. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(7), (2002), p. 1249.

[McC99] Nathaniel McConaghy. Unresolved Issues in Scientific Sexology. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28(4), (1998), pp. 285-318.

[Mon84] John Money. Paraphilias: Phenomenology and classification. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 38(2), (1984), pp. 164-179.

[Mos01] Charles Moser. Paraphilia: A Critique of a Confused Concept. In: Peggy J. Kleinplatz (ed.), New Directions in Sex Therapy: Innovations and Alternatives. Brunner-Routledge, Philadelphia, 2001. pp. 91-108.

[MK02] Charles Moser, Peggy J. Kleinplatz. Transvestic fetishism: Psychopathology or iatrogenic artifact? New Jersey Psychologist, 52(2), (2002), pp. 16-17. http://home.netcom.com/~docx2/tf.html.

[MK03] Charles Moser, Peggy J. Kleinplatz. DSM-IV-TR and the Paraphilias: An Argument for Removal. Paper presented on May 19, 2003 at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 2003. http://home.netcom.com/~docx2/mk.html.

[MO+93] Aribert Muhs, Christina Öri, Ingrid Rothe-Kirchberger, Wolfram Ehlers. Die Klassifikation der Persönlichkeitsstörungen in der ICD-10. Ergebnisse der Forschungskriterienstudie. In: Wolfgang Schneider (ed.), Diagnostik und Klassifikation nach ICD-10, Kap. V: eine kritische Auseinandersetzung; Ergebnisse der ICD-10-Forschungskriterienstudie aus dem Bereich Psychosomatik/Psychotherapie, vol. 17 of Monographie zur Zeitschrift für psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1993. pp. 132-149.

[PF+92] Harold Alan Pincus, Allen Frances, Wendy Wakefield Davis, Michael B. First, Thomas A. Widiger. DSM-IV and New Diagnostic Categories: Holding the Line on Proliferation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(1), (1992), pp. 112-117.

[PT94] Roy Porter, Mikulás Teich (eds.). Sexual knowledge, sexual science: the history of attitudes to sexuality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994.

[SZ+96] H. Saß, M. Zaudig, I. Houben, H.-U. Wittchen. Einführung zur deutschen Ausgabe: Zur Situation der operationalisierten Diagnostik in der deutschsprachigen Psychiatrie. In: American Psychiatric Association (ed.), Diagnostisches und statistisches Manual psychischer Störungen DSM-IV. Hogrefe, Verlag für Psychologie, Göttingen, Bern, Toronto, Seattle, 1996. pp. IX-XXIV.

[Sch95] C.W. Schmidt. Sexual psychopathology and the DSM-IV. American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, 14, (1995), pp. 719-733.

[Sho97] Edward Shorter. A History of Psychiatry. John Wiley, New York, 1997.

[Sup84] Frederick Suppe. Classifying Sexual Disorders: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatrical Association. Journal of Homosexuality, 9(4), (1984), pp. 9-28.

[WHO48] World Health Organization (ed.). Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death: sixth revision of the International lists of diseases and causes of death, adopted 1948 / compiled under the auspices of the World Health Organization. WHO, Geneva, 1948.

[WHO57] World Health Organization (ed.). Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death: based on the recommendations of the Seventh Revision Conference, 1955, and adapted by the Ninth World Health Assembly under the WHO nomenclature regulations. WHO, Geneva, 1957.

[WHO67] World Health Organization (ed.). International classification of diseases: manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death, based on the recommendations of the Eighth Revision Conference, 1965, and adopted by the Nineteenth World Health Assembly. WHO, Geneva, 1967.

[WHO77] World Health Organization (ed.). Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death: based on the recommendations of the Ninth Revision Conference, 1975, and adopted by the Twenty-ninth World Health Assembly. WHO, Geneva, 1977.

[WHO92] World Health Organization (ed.). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, vol. I. WHO, Geneva, 1992.

[WHO93] World Health Organization (ed.). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Diagnostic criteria for research, vol. II. WHO, Geneva, 1993.

 

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This bibliography is broken into two sections:

  1. Texts concerned with the F65 classification system
  2. Recommended general publications

This is an extract from Datenschlag’s BISAM bibliography. The complete version is available at www.datenschlag.org/english/bisam/. This version does not contain the abstracts, just the bibliographic notes.

Compiled by Kathrin Passig (picture left).
Please send corrections and additions tó [email protected].

This version: September, 2003

Bibliography 2 – Recommended general publications

[AS+01] Laurence Alison, Pekka Santtila, N. Kenneth Sandnabba, Nikolas Nordling. Sadomasochistically Oriented Behavior: Diversity in Practice and Meaning. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30(1), (2001), pp. 1-12.

[All40] Clifford Allen. The Sexual Perversions and Abnormalities: A study in the psychology of paraphilia. Oxford University Press, London et al., 1940.

[Bau88] Roy F. Baumeister. Masochism as Escape from Self. Journal of Sex Research, 25, (1988), pp. 28-59.

[Bau89] Roy F. Baumeister. Masochism and the Self. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, 1989.

[Bau91] Roy F. Baumeister. Escaping the Self: Alcoholism, Spirituality, Masochism. Harper Collins, New York, 1991. 268 pages, masochism on pp. 115-138.

[Bau97] Roy F. Baumeister. The Enigmatic Appeal of Sexual Masochism: Why People Desire Pain, Bondage and Humiliation in Sex. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16(2), (1997), pp. 133-150.

[BB97] Roy F. Baumeister, Jennifer L. Butler. Sexual Masochism: Deviance without Pathology. In: Donald Richard Laws, William O’Donohue (eds.), Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. Guilford Publications, New York, 1997. pp. ?-?

[Bie98] Robert V. Bienvenu II. The Development of Sadomasochism as a Cultural Style in the Twentieth-Century United States. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1998. www.americanfetish.net.

[BBJ93] Gloria G. Brame, William D. Brame, Jon Jacobs. Different Loving: The World of Sexual Dominance and Submission. Villard, New York, 1993.

[Bre89] Norman Breslow. Sources of Confusion in the Study and Treatment of Sadomasochism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4(3), (1989), pp. 263-274.

[BEL85] Norman Breslow, Linda Evans, Jill Langley. On the Prevalence and Roles of Females in the Sadomasochistic Subculture: Report of an Empirical Study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, (1985), pp. 303-317.

[BEL86] Norman Breslow, Linda Evans, Jill Langley. Comparisons Among Heterosexual, Bisexual and Homosexual Male Sado-Masochists. Journal of Homosexuality, 13(1), (1986), pp. 83-107.

[BB77a] Vern Bullough, Bonnie Bullough. Sin, Sickness, Sanity: A History of Sexual Attitudes. New American Library, New York, 1977.

[BB94] Vern L. Bullough, Bonnie Bullough (eds.). Human sexuality: an encyclopedia. Garland, New York / London, 1994. www2.hu-berli% n.de/sexology/GESUND/ARCHIV/SEN/INDEX.HTM.

[Cap84] Paula J. Caplan. The Myth of Women’s Masochism. American Psychologist, 39(2), (1984), pp. 130-139.

[FM91] Gerald I. Fogel, Wayne A. Myers (eds.). Perversions and Near-Perversions in Clinical Practice: New Psychoanalytic Perspectives. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., 1991.

[Gat00] Katherine Gates. Deviant Desires. Juno Books, 2000.

[LC95] Law Commission. Consent in the Criminal Law: A Consultation Paper, vol. 139 of Law Commission Consultation Paper. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1995.

[LMJ94] Eugene E. Levitt, Charles Moser, Karen V. Jamison. The Prevalence and Some Attributes of Females in the Sadomasochistic Subculture: A Second Report. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23(4), (1994), pp. 465-473.

[Mos88] Charles Moser. Sadomasochism. Journal of Social Work \& Human Sexuality, 7(1), (1988), pp. 43-56. Special Issue: The Sexually Unusual: Guide to Understanding and Helping.

[Mos92] Charles Moser. Lust, lack of desire, and paraphilias: Some thoughts and possible connections. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 18(1), (1992), pp. 65-69.

[Mos99] Charles Moser. Health Care Without Shame. A Handbook for the Sexually Diverse and Their Caregivers. Greenery Press, San Francisco, 1999.

[Mos99a] Charles Moser. The psychology of sadomasochism (S/M). In: Susan Wright (ed.), SM Classics. Masquerade Books, New York, 1999. pp. 47-61.

[Mos01] Charles Moser. Paraphilia: A Critique of a Confused Concept. In: Peggy J. Kleinplatz (ed.), New Directions in Sex Therapy: Innovations and Alternatives. Brunner-Routledge, Philadelphia, 2001. pp. 91-108.

[MK02] Charles Moser, Peggy J. Kleinplatz. Transvestic fetishism: Psychopathology or iatrogenic artifact? New Jersey Psychologist, 52(2), (2002), pp. 16-17.. http://home.netcom.com/~docx2/tf.html.

[MK03] Charles Moser, Peggy J. Kleinplatz. DSM-IV-TR and the Paraphilias: An Argument for Removal. Paper presented on May 19, 2003 at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 2003.
http://home.netcom.com/~docx2/mk.html.

[ML87] Charles Moser, Eugene E. Levitt. An Exploratory-Descriptive Study of a Sadomasochistically Oriented Sample. Journal of Sex Research, 23, (1987), pp. 322-337. Also published in [Wei95].

[MM96] Charles Moser, J.J. Madeson. Bound to be Free: The SM Experience. Continuum, New York, 1996.

[Noy97] John K. Noyes. The Mastery of Submission. Cornell University Press, Ithaca et al., 1997.

[Oos00] Harry Oosterhuis. Stepchildren of Nature: Krafft-Ebing, Psychiatry, and the Making of Sexual Identity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2000. 321 pages.

[Sar88] Thomas O. Sargent. Fetishism. Journal of Social Work \& Human Sexuality, 7(1), (1988), pp. 27-42. Special Issue: The Sexually Unusual: Guide to Understanding and Helping.

[Spe77] Andreas Spengler. Manifest Sadomasochism of Males: Results of an Empirical Study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, (1977), pp. 441-456.

[Sto91] Robert Stoller. Pain and Passion: A Psychoanalyst Explores the World of S\&M. Plenum Press, New York, 1991.

[Wei94a] Thomas S. Weinberg. Research in Sadomasochism: A Review of Sociological and Social Psychological Literature. Annual Review of Sex Research, 5, (1994), pp. 257-279. Also published in [Wei95], pp. 289-303.

[Wei95] Thomas S. Weinberg (ed.). S\&M – Studies in Dominance and Submission. Prometheus Books, New York, 1995.

[Wil87] Glenn Wilson (ed.). Variant Sexuality: Research and Theory. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1987.

[Wri99] Susan Wright (ed.). SM Classics. Masquerade Books, New York, 1999.


Love is no disease!

Text in this column by reviseF65

Europride Köln 2002. Photo: Smia-Oslo

The Law Commission

The British Law Commision says no to SM discrimination

An official appointed British Law Commission in 1995 came to the conclusion that SM or sadomasochism, short of causing serious or permanently disabling injury, should be no crime between consenting adults. After the 1993 Spanner verdict, Britain has been alone in Europe to criminalize safe, sane and consensual SM sex.

By Svein Skeid

The director of the civil rights group Liberty, John Wadham, welcomes the document, according to The Pink Paper 22. December 1995. – Under the Law Commission’s new proposals, he said, the Spanner men would never have been prosecuted.

The Commission’s document contains the most wideranging and detailed official survey ever conducted into SM activities. It includes evidence from a wide section of legal, medical and public opinion, and a number of women’s organizations stressing the importance of adult consent independant of religious, spiritual, athletic or sexual SM purpose.

Professor of Law, David Feldman, widely cited in academic literature and by international courts, say in the consultation paper paras 10.46, that:

“In his view the interest (whether public or private) in allowing people to express their sexuality, which forms a fundamental part of a person’s personality, is no less important than the interest in allowing people to pursue sports. Sport is fun, but sex for many people is more than fun: it is a form of selfexpression.”

Feminists Against Censorship’s Avedon Carol, (paras 10.51) commented on a Spanner seminar at the ICA on March 10 1994 that “prosecuting consenting SMers was not going to help the victims of real violence” and contrasted the resources spent on prosecuting the Spannermen with the lack of police interest in charging women-batterers.

Criminalisation and false reports on innocent people weakens the credibility of real victims of violence. This is not in the interest of women.

As with other assaults, women also seem to suffer the most violence because of their sexual SM orientation, love or selfexpression. More than one third of leather women have experienced harassment, persecution or physical assault – – much of this executed by other women. Within the women’s community, over half (56%) of the 539 lesbian and bisexual women surveyed experienced discrimination, harassment, or physical assault from other women because of their participation in consensual SM. (The “Jad Keres Report” 1994.). “The NCSF Violence & Discrimination Survey 1998 found that 1/3 of over 1000 leather/fetish/SM persons surveyed suffered violence, discrimination and persecution — losing their job or even their children because of their sexual lifestyle and identity.

Also the experiences of the norwegian SM support group Smia-Oslo show that several of ourfemale members haved tried to commit suicide because of bashing, harassment and discrimination from other lesbians and the society.

The 1995 Law Commission evaluated the infliction of consensual pain and roleplay in religion, sport and sado-masochism, and found no reason to legally discriminate people because of their sexual SM orientation. They will apply the same age limit to activities involving the infliction of pain-creating injury for the purposes of religious mortification or for spiritual motives as to similar activities for the purposes of sexual gratification.

According to the Times, the UK government is considering rewriting the 130-year-old “offences against the person” laws which were used to prosecute the Spanner SMers, based on The Law Commission’s recommendations.

SM Gays in Pink Paper welcomed the report, but said they would continue to press for the proposed age of consent to be lowered to 16.

The Law Commission report notes that SM sex acts are “engaged in by large numbers of people, many of whom are utterly respectable,” and that there are many more heterosexual people quietly having SM sex in the suburbs than there are gay leather men in London clubs.” They include a considerable number of politicians, lawyers and judges.

The Law Commission is an official Government body that produces among other things Consultation Papers about particularly difficult or unclear areas of the Law. The Law Commission reports are intended to clarify the situation and are used by Politicians to help them draw up future Parliamentary Bills in the particular area of concern. When the Law is clarified by a change of Law it is usually in line with the recommendations of The Law Commission Consultation Papers. It therefore follows that The Law Commission recommendations are most important in the formulation of English Criminal Law.

 

DSM – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

About The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

By Svein Skeid

The American Psychiatric Association, APA, considerably revised their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) in 1994. SM and Fetishism were considered to be healthy forms of sexual expression, as long as they do not impair the daily functioning of the subject.

According to DSM-IV, SM and Fetishism only become diagnosable dysfunctions when the urges, fantasies or behaviors “cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning.”

In addition APA said that “a paraphilia must be distinguished from the non-pathological use of sexual fantasies, behaviors or objects as a stimulus for sexual excitement.”

The DSM-IV revision, in 1994, was seen as a step forward, but is far from satisfactory. Stigma knowledge shows that many psychological, physical and social problems are not caused by the individual afflicted, but by taboos, prejudices, and discrimination imposed by the environment.

According to Charles Moser, the diagnostic criteria changed yet again in 2000 for the worse introducing version DSM-IV-TR (2000).

According to The Differential Diagnosis of the Paraphilias “A Paraphilia must be distinguished from the non-pathological use of sexual fantasies, behaviors, or objects as a stimulus for sexual excitement in individuals without a Paraphilia. Fantasies, behaviors, or objects are paraphilic only when they lead to clinically significant distress or impairment (e.g., are obligatory, result in sexual dysfunction, require participation of nonconsenting individuals, lead to legal complications, interfere in social relationships). (DSM, p. 568)

“The way this diagnosis is interpreted, any reason that you are seen by a physician or therapist (including court order, as to assess who should get custody of your children in the event of a divorce), can bring about the diagnosis even if it has nothing to do with the issue being investigated.”  Charles Moser on the ReviseF65 discussion group January 22, 2006.

In a press release November 25, 2008, NCSF, National Coalition for Sexual Freedom says about DSM-IV TR:

“We know from the hundreds of requests for help that NCSF gets every year through our Incident Response program that the Sexual Sadism, Sexual Masochism, Fetishism and Transvestic Fetishism diagnoses in the DSM reinforce the negative stereotypes and stigma against alternative sexual behaviors.”

From the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The DSM-IV defines mental disorders. Previous editions of the DSM listed sadism and masochism as diagnosable disorders just for having such fantasies or urges over a period of time. The new edition adds modifying criteria: with both masochism and sadism, both A & B criteria must be met in order to make a diagnosis. That is, you must have the fantasies, urges, etc., and the fact that you have them must make you effectively dysfunctional in an important area of your life.

Diagnosic criteria for 302.83 Sexual Masochism

A. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten, bound or otherwise made to suffer.

B. The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Diagnostic criteria for 302.84 Sexual Sadism

A. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving acts (real, not simulated) in which psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation) of the victim is sexually exciting to the person.

B. The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.


DSM Revision White Paper: http://ncsfreedom.org/index.php?option=com_keyword&id=305

Charles Moser and Peggy J. Kleinplatz:
DSM-IV-TR and the Paraphilias:
An Argument for Removal
http://home.netcom.com/~docx2/mk.html

Denmark withdraws SM from Diagnosis-list

Denmark has taken the political decision to remove SM as a diagnosis

In 1995, as the first European country, Denmark withdrew sadomasochism completely as a diagnosis by a political decision in the Government. The decision is founded on research showing SM or sadomasochism to be no disease. The Dual-role transvestism diagnosis were repealed in Denmark August 19, 1994.

– Not a disease

In a letter to Anders Sørensen, chairman of the SM association Det Sorte Selskab (The Black Society), the former Health Minister Yvonne Herløv Andersen (picture) wrote that she finds it deplorable that sadomasochism is included in the ICD, the International Classification of Diseases.

“I think there is good reason to abandon the international disease classification on this point,” wrote Andersen, who was the Danish Health Minister from 1994 to 1996, and Social Minister before that. The Minister agreed that sexual preferences are an entirely private matter. “The acceptance of people with a different sexuality has increased, and in this area Denmark is a pioneer country”, she concluded in her letter.

The Black Society’s chairman Anders Sørensen received the decision with enthusiasm. “Many sadomasochists all over the world wish that this attitude were current in their own country, including neighbours like Sweden, Norway and England, which in other matters are regarded as enlightened and civilised states with a human attitude in the administration of justice”, the SM chairman declaired to the Danish newspaper “Politiken” (The Politics 1995, April 1, p. A7).

In the picture at the bottom, you can see a facsimile of the letter from Sundhedsstyrelsen (the Danish Board of Health), where the decision to stop using the diagnose F65.5 Sadomasochism, is announced. Click the picture for a larger version of the letter, which naturally is written in Danish. (English translation below).

Violence and SM in the same diagnosis

In today’s ICD classification there is no difference at all between voluntary and consensual SM sex on one side, and violence, harassment and spouse abuse on the other.

The above-quoted documents how Denmark in 1995 withdrew SM as a diagnose, for the precise reason that research shows that SM’ers are no more unsound than other people.
http://www.revisef65.org/psychopathology.html

On the web site
http://members.aol.com/NOWSM/Psychiatrists.html/#Psychiatrists;
Park Elliot Dietz – one of the worlds leading authorities on the relationship between aggression and sex – documents the basic differences between violent sadism and SM sadism.

On the same web site, the Kinsey Institute’s research report from 1990 is referred to. This report shows that 5-10 percent of the population exercise some form of SM or sadomasochism.

National rejection of diagnoses

Also in Norway and other countries we have seen, in relation to homosexuality, that single countries may reject individual diagnoses in ICD, which is controlled by the World Health Organization, WHO. The more countries that succeed in rejecting the disease classification F65 on fetishism and sadomasochism, the greater the possibility that WHO will withdraw it.

Kink Aware Professionals

Changes in the diagnosis classification ICD are now taking place almost continuously. History shows that the DSM list of the American Psychiatric Association, APA, very often affects the international ICD.

You can find a list over “Kink aware professionals” on http://www.ncsfreedom.org/index.php?option=com_keyword&id=270

This list, originating in the USA, now includes the whole world, also Europe. A few European resources have already started to emerge. See also: Kink aware professionals Berlin http://www.bdsm-berlin.de/kap.html

Kink aware professionals Canada http://www.vancouverleather.com/kap

The letter from Sundhedsstyrelsen (the National Board of Health)

From the Board of Health

To: head physicians at psychiatric wards
The Psychiatric Central Register
The hospitals’ centres of information technology
County data
Ministry of Health

April 24, 1995

J.no. 6702-15 1994
Local no. 6201

 

From the Health Minister the Board of Health has received a request that the disease classification’s code for sadomasochism be no longer used in the indexing of diseases.

Consequently we request that the use of the code

DF65.5 Sadomasochism

be blocked for use with effect from May 1, 1995.

Best regards
head physician G. Shiøler (sign.)
Board of Health, Amaliegade 13, Po. box. 2020, DK-1012 Copenhagen K. Telephone 33 91 16 01.
sundhedsstyrelsenbrevstor

The former Health Minister Yvonne Herløv Andersen, who in 1995, on behalf of the Danish government, removed sadomasochism as a criteria of illness in Denmark.
“The acceptance of people with a different sexuality has increased, and in this area Denmark is a pioneer country”

UK report – August 2003

IML 2003 is official supporter of the ReviseF65 Project

Eric and Svein have been rallying support for SM human rights in the UK during august 2003. Representing the ReviseF65 project, they have held four workshops with in all more than fifty people attending. At all the workshops there were represented different gay and straight SM/fetish leaders and mental health specialists from several countries, and during August the number of members on the ReviseF65 mailing list has increased by 50 percent. One of the workshops received the visit of International Mr Leather, John Pendal. Afterwords he decided to support officially the ReviseF65 project.

International Mr Leather, John Pendal (picture left) published August 26th that ReviseF65 is one of five projects that he will support during the year he holds the title. This should provide a good opportunity for informing people about our project work.

John Pendal is one of very few Europeans who has been awarded International Mr Leather. He got the title at the IML contest in Chicago May 25th 2003. He has taken this year off, to give the role his full attention.

Eric and Svein met him at Europride in Manchester 2003. The ECMC leather club MSC Manchester Superchain had invited John to walk in front of their leather-section in the Europride parade Saturday 23rd 2003. For some time Eric and Svein have had mail contact with MSC‘s hon secretary Ian A. He helped us to get a location for our ReviseF65 workshop in Manchester. Friday 22nd Ian presented us to John (picture right) and Sunday John surprisingly attended our ReviseF65 workshop at Malmaison Hotel. It was very interesting and a big honour for us to be able to present our work to the International Mr Leather.

After the lecture we met John at Manchester Legends Bar celebrating MSC Superchain‘s 20th birthday. We asked him if he would consider the possibility of becoming an official supporter of the ReviseF65 project. He answered “yes” immediately and asked Svein to be photographed together with him in front of the Norwegian flag to demonstrate his support (see the upper picture in the right column).

On Monday we wrote John a mail from an internet café in Manchester and thanked him for his support. Tuesday Ian Gurnhill in Spanner Trust (picture left ) told us that John had linked up the ReviseF65 project on his IML Link page. Friday August 29th, we met John and his partner David at the Hoist leatherclub in London. This is John‘s home club where he received the title “Mr Hoist 2003” in February. John told us that he now also had linked the ReviseF65 project to his Support site. This means that ReviseF65 is one of five projects that IML 2003 endorses. This support is of course a big inspiration for us in our work.

In addition to the workshop at Malmaison Hotel, Eric held a “women only” workshop Sunday August 24th at UK’s First International Womens‘ SM Conference in Manchester. On his first trip to the UK, Svein held a successful workshop at the SM Pride festival in London Saturday August 2nd. Another workshop was held at Central Station, Kings Cross, London Thursday August 28th. This lecture was one hour delayed because of the big power-failure (picture right) that stopped all traffic at London‘s Underground system for hours.

The four ReviseF65 workshops attracted from 4 to 40 participants each. At all the workshops central human-rights activists attended. Discussions, dinners and strategy meetings with these SM/leather leaders gave us feedback which will be important for our continued project work.

In addition, our two visits to the UK gave us the opportunity to take a lot of SM/fetish pictures, which we consider an important ingredient of the Revise F65 website.

Annual Report 2003

The ReviseF65 project
ReviseF65 in a new Haworth book

An article by Dr. Odd Reiersøl and Svein Skeid on the Revise 65 project will be published in a forthcoming special, double issue of the US periodical Journal of Homosexuality on SM. The article will be published simultaneously by The Haworth Press INC as a book on SM.

2003 has been a successful year for the ReviseF65 project and the most active until now. The production this year of professional articles and lectures constitutes a solid basis for the long-term work towards the removal of SM and Fetish diagnoses. The article and lectures set focus on the lack of scientific basis for today’s diagnoses and that they lead to discrimination and violence against the SM, Fetish and Transvestite population. With this, an important first part of the committee’s mandate has been fulfilled.

The ReviseF65 committee asked for, and received support on April 29 and May 8 from the Norwegian Association of Gay and Lesbian Physicians (HLLF) and the Norwegian Society for Clinical Sexology (NFKS).

We have had a tight collaboration with our mother organization, LLH, the Norwegian National Association for Lesbian and Gay Liberation. On June 28, during the Gay Pride Week, the ReviseF65 webmaster Svein Skeid (picture), was honoured with the Gay Person of the Year Award. It is very encouraging for the further work to revise the Fetish and SM diagnoses, to receive such a prize from LLH.

LLH leader Tore Holte Follestad also delivered a letter from the ReviseF65 group to Mr. Dagfinn Høybråten, Minister of Health (Christian Democratic Party) on November 28. This laid out the professional and human rights arguments which underlie the move to take away the SM and Fetish diagnoses. This is the first official initiative from the ReviseF65 group to Norwegian political authorities.

Professional articles and lectures

Psychologist Odd Reiersøl’s 2002 article “SM: Causes and diagnoses”, can be read atwww.reviseF65.org/reiersol1.html. So far, this article has been translated into German, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and Russian, in addition to English. On August 21, 2003, Odd Reiersøl and Svein Skeid’s article “The ICD Diagnoses of Fetishism and SM” was finally accepted for print in a forthcoming special, double issue of the US periodical “Journal of Homosexuality” on SM. The article will be published simultaneously by The Haworth Press INC as a book on SM.

On June 20, 2003, psychiatrist Reidar Kjær (picture) made the presentation “Do we need all the Paraphilias?” at the International Psychiatric Conference on Diagnosis in Psychiatry. This was held in Vienna Austria and arranged by the World Psychiatric Association. Dr Kjær also held lectures (in Norwegian) entitled “Is SM and Fetish still a disease?” at the Gay Pride Days in Kristiansand on June 6, at the Gay Pride week in Oslo on June 24, and at the SM house “Nonna” October 24.

On March 10-14 2003, two members of the ReviseF65 mailing list; the Brazilian sexologist and clinical psychologist Maria Cristina Martins and the psychologist, psychoanalyst, Ph.D. in Psychopathology and Psychoanalysis by Paris VII University, Paulo Roberto Ceccarelli, presented a survey about SM and Fetish diagnoses at the XV World Congress of Sexology in Cuba. Their article, “The so-called “deviant” sexualities: Perversion or right to difference?”, can be read at the Revise web site. Dr. Charles Moser also gave a lecture about the paraphilia diagnoses at the same conference. Moser and Peggy J. Kleinplatz’ article “DSM-IV-TR and the Paraphilias: An Argument for Removal”, can also be found linked up from the ReviseF65 main page.

The web pages and the mailing list

The ReviseF65 index page was totally renovated in 2003, with separate professional and human rights sections. In the professional part you can read Dorothy Hayden’s interesting article “Is Sadomasochism a mental pathology?“.

Kathrin Passig’s exclusive special ReviseF65 version of the Datenschlag’s BISAM bibliography, which was established late 2002, was updated in October 2003. The bibliography is divided in two parts, one for the revision of diagnoses, and one for “Recommended general publications”.

Included in the Human rights section is information about the support to the ReviseF65 project from the International Mr Leather, John Pendal (picture). Eric and Svein met him during Europride in Manchester. He attended one of the four workshops we held in England during August. Pendal made public on August 26 that ReviseF65 is one of five projects that he will support during the year he holds the title. This should provide a good opportunity for informing people around the world about the Revise work. Svein also held a workshop during SM Pride in London August 2, and took hundreds of pictures of the SM Pride parade. Picture gallery from Europride in Manchester can be found here.

During 2003, the article about how Denmark removed the diagnosis of Sadomasochism in 1995 wastranslated into English. The Brazilian physician Beatriz Kotek has translated our web pages to Portuguese.

During August, the number of subscribers of the ReviseF65 mailing list increased by 50 percent, due to Reidar’s lecture in Vienna and Svein’s workshop in London. The list moderator, Ole, approved 40 new members to the list in 2003. At the end of the year, we were 87 members on the mailing list. Still we think there is low activity on the list. We hope that new members will present themselves and that people will express their opinions about and experiences of the diagnoses in question.

Svein Skeid, leader

Support the ICD project SM is healthy Remove SM/fetish diagnoses

Support the ICD project SM is healthy Remove SM/fetish diagnoses

SM and Fetishism are positive and healthful parts of peoples lives. To accept one’s SM orientation, preference, sexuality and love is essential for a healthy life, identity and decisive for the ability to protect oneself against sexually transmitted diseases.


SM is love – not a disease
Europride in Cologne 2002. Photo by Svein Skeid,
Smia-Oslo.

Love and respect are basic parts of SM relationships. Stigmatizing minorities by diagnosing their sexual orientation is on the contrary as disrespectful as discriminating people because of their race, ethnicity or religion.

For many years homosexuality has been abolished as a disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). But did you know that leather men and SM dykes are still not reported off the sick list? SM sex is even now considered an illness by the WHO, despite the fact that US psychiatrists removed it from their DSM manual eight years ago.

In connection with Europride 2002 the ICD project asks for testimony, quoted reference and supporting evidence from psychiatrists, psychologists, sexologists and reseachers of human sexuality in order to remove Fetishism, Sadomasochism and Transvestic Fetishism as paraphilic diagnoses from ICD, The International Classification of Diseases published by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The initiative of individuals is always to be welcomed, but even more efficient would be the formation of local and national working groups which are able to approach to the professionals in question.

Women suffer the most harassment
Branding perfectly healthy sexuality is an unacceptable insult to the dignity and integrity of the people who enjoy these safe, sane and consensual practices. Stigmatizing minorities by diagnosing their sexual orientation is as disrespectful as discriminating people because of their race, ethnicity or religion.

Even though the paraphilias in question are very rarely used, the stigma of being diagnosed make harassment of sexual minorities legitimate. The U.S. Leather Leadership Conference documents that between one-third and one-half of the leather/SM population suffer discrimination, violence or persecution because of their sexual orientation and identity. As with other assaults, women suffer the most harassment, losing their job or even their children, because of their SM love, lifestyle and self-expression.

Because lesbians also experience physical attacks – approximately one out of every four SM dykes consider or actually commit suicide because of severe persecution by their fellow-sisters – the U.S. National Organization for Women, NOW in 1999 erased previous censure of sadomasochism from their “Delineation of Lesbian Rights” policy.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in 2001 became involved in the question of such abuses, and has registered individual cases of violence against SM practitioners worldwide.

Healthy leather people
In recent years as more research has been published, also the mental health and medical communities have begun to accept that SM is a safe and legitimate pursuit.

Sadomasochism is considered to be a healthy form of sexual expression as long as it does not impair the daily functioning of the subject, according to the latest 1994 edition of American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic & Statistic Manual (DSM-IV).

Denmark, as the first European country, totally removed the diagnoses of Sadomasochism from their national version of ICD in 1995 because this non-violent and healthy activity was considered as a private matter by the Health Authority.

In the rest of Europe and the world, fetishists, SM’ers and transvestites are still considered among the mentally ill by the ICD psychiatric authorities.